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General Tube & Tube Amp Info, Hifi sites Brand specific sites for tube hifi gear (EICO, Scott,McIntosh, etc) DHT, SET and other sites on triode DIY amplifiers Online and offline  magazines Vintage Organs and other electronic music
Guitar Amp Related Sites Links to More Links Pages FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions ) and sites for novice Tube Amp mavens FTP Download Sites Vintage Jukebox Related Sites

If you know of any links that should be on this page, or find any dead links, please email us at or overloaded servers are occasional nuisances on the 'net, if you get a "server not responding" error, just try again later..

FAQ's(lists of Frequently Asked Questions about tubes, amps, etc) , pages especially for novice Tube Mavens, Links to More Links, Guitar Amp and Jukebox Related Sites are towards the bottom of the page. Keep scrolling, it's there!

If you are surfing around, you may find some sites have UNIX compressed files, like .tar , .tar.Z , .gz and .tgz types. You can open these with PKZip, which you can download from PKZip can also be used to open DOS/Windows .ZIP files, if you are using a Macintosh or Linux (What is Linux , and why are you going to hear more about it? And what's the deal with the penguin, anyway? Click Here to find out)
Windows & Mac Tools for viewing most image formats can be found at and . For Linux, try , or , as well as Tucows.
Many sites have files in Adobe PDF format. To read these, you need a copy of Adobe Acrobat,which is a free download.

General Tube Related and Hifi Links

Steve Bench's Home Page, lots of DIY projects for tube audio mavens, including the whole deal on the RAT Tube Tester Project and the Poor Man's Distortion Analyzer, Battery Powered Tube Audio/Guitar Amps, and more.

Audio Asylum, huge audio bulletin board system. Sections for tubes, single ended amps, wire, speakers, general insanity, and more.

High End Audio Community - High-End audio component reviews, audio equipment discussions, audiophile systems, record and music recommendations

Duncan Munro's Amp Page: lots of tube data, plus SPICE models & schematics..

Need schematics for old radios? Or just want to look at 'em, so you can see how stuff wuz done in the olden days? This site has 4000 pages of them on color code charts, on antique tube types.

More info & links on antique tube radios.. and the first has loads o' links, second has an online Bulletin Board where you can post questions about antique radios & amps.

Vandit Kalia's Home Page, with lots of info on restoring Dynaco tube equipment.

DIY Links Resource

Why transistors aren't much good for switching 50,000 amps at 20,000 volts in under 20 nS,
or, Please Don't Install JFETS in Your A-Bomb Triggers. Discussion of high powered
tube switching devices.

Tube Dude's Web Page

What *is* C37, anyway? Includes technocrat's "horrorshow"...
More about C37, in German:

Sowter Transfomers-Not Famous, Just Great The ghost of the inventor of mu-metal still haunts the English countryside...

Golden Sound DH Cones Home Page

"Pagina dedicado al sonido de valvulas" ....sitio muy elegante sobre la tema de amplificadores de valvulas, en espanol.

Iggy Pop's Russian Tube Reference Page..hard to find data , and a US/Euro/Russian crossreference.

Russian Antique Tube Radio Galleryalso interesting pictures of Russian tubes.In both English and Russian.

Kliknij tutaj,jesli mowisz po polsku: Lotsa schematics, which you can read even if you can't speak Polish.."lampy" is Polish for "tube"..

Franz Hamberger's page, in both English and Deutsch. Lots of European tube data online.

This one has Telefunken data pages (in German), in PDF format, as well as schematics for German theater & stereo amps.

Brian McAllister's Home Page. In between bouts of dissing the bloody Sassenachs on the 'web,Brian puts interesting schematics on his page.

Robert Casey's Pencil Tube Page

Bry's Ham Radio & Hockey Page:Loads o' links for amatuer radio buffs of whatever persuasion.

Pat Jankowiak: More Ham Radio boatanchor & SWL stuff, mobile tube audio amp, tube hifi stuff, giant Tesla coil, plus loads of electronic design software for download.

Claudio Bonavolta's site, from Switzerland. Loads of schemattics for  DIY tube hifi amplifiers, preamps, headphone amps, and tube RIAA phono stages.

Dan Hildebrand's site, with interesting articles from himself, Robert Schneider, and Henry Pasternack. (None represent official opinions of the National Football League).

Harry Straub's Tube Audio Pages:
Harry also put together a nice page on Hickok Tube Testers:

Want to see a broadcast engineer at work? Also has pix of our Dynaco upgrade boards

Technological fossils...project & links page.

Ampage, the original guitar amp bulletin board & resource site.

Svetlana Home & application notes on using Svetlana tubes.

Steven Bender's Home Page

World Power Systems: Copies of 1960 era tube catalog sheets, data on miniature lamps, interesting test gear.

Col. Steve Wilson, amp guy for Stevie Ray Vaughan & the Kentucky Headhunters, talks about tube biasing.

DEMOSTENES An ancient Greek philosopher returns to sell tubes in Norway! Uff Da!

Che bella! Andrea Ciuffoli's OTL amp page, diagrams of about every OTL there ever was.

The Italians sure know how do a web page! Audiomatica has tons of data on obscure & Russian tubes that you might not find elsewhere.

Undue Purversity Tube Page Proving there's more than corn in Indiana! But don't drink on campus...

Swedish readers might think this one is about sex, but really Mr Nulla gives a lot of good advice to audiophiles who are being driven to neuroses by slagheaded Audio zine-bots.

Kevin Kennedy's Web Page

Eimac newly revised Care & Feeding of Power Grid Tubes (a work in progress)

Jim Cross' Vacuum Tubes Inc. If we don't have it, Jim probably does

Bob's Radio & TV, Bob specializes in vintage auto radio restoration.

Nathan Stewart's Homebrew Tube Amp Corner

Tanaka & Higuchi's On Line Vacuum Tube Museum

Eric Scott of Australia's Hadley Records is working on a valve page, too..

Jan's Tube Audio Page (in English)

Mattijs Analogica (Glow Glow Glow Glow!) 200 schematics online.

Radio Restoration & rejuvenating vacuum tubes

Mr Valve/Tubes To Go

Dave Cigna's Tube Data Page

AES Paper: Tubes Vs Transistors

Electrical Engineering Circuits Archive

Vacuum Tube Parameter Identification Using Computer Methods. Now I wish I took more math in college. Yow.

Andy Cowley's page, still under construction, but has some cool 1950's magazine adverts introducing KT88 and ECC83, etc.

Matt Warren's Page: lotsa cool tube info.

Griffon Valve Pages, info on classic British amps, DIY projects. Try to ignore the "Brittania Rules" midi tune using up your CPU cycles...

Tube Guy's Web Page...Tube Guy knows a lot about tubes.

What Tubes NASA uses

Firebottle Audio and

If you've always wanted to build an original Williamson amplifier, this page from Holland (in English) will tell you about everything you'd want to know.

Lots of info on playing antique 78 RPM records on modern hifi systems.

If you can get past the picture of the cat trying to hypnotize you, Roger Stevens wrote some nice pages on upgrading Dynaco & Eico vintage hifi gear.

National Institute of Standards & Technology Home Page

French Institute of Research & Coordination Acoustic/Music
In French In English

Radio Station Locator & Coverage Guide

Lucky's page from Austria (in English) with interesting tube circuits

The Audiocrew's Page from Finland in English

in Finnish

Radio Wumpus: Data on WW2 and other odd German tubes (German & English)

Sound Notes: No Nonsense Hong-Kong Hi-Fi (US mirror site)

Dave Mann's Hi End Page:

Simple Tube Interchangeability guide (from Hong Kong, in English)

What tubes cost in Japan (don't have a heart attack!) in English

Japanese current production hi-end tube amps (in English)

Junji Kouchi Home Page, mostly in English.

Michael's Tubestuff, info on Heath, Dyna, homebrew projects, more links..

Henry Pasternack's home page, not much but pictures so far.

Everything you wanted to know about the life & times of the famous speaker designer James B. Lansing..

Eric Barbour's Page

Here's Eric's article from IEEE Spectrum on vacuum tubes:

Thomas Dunker's DIY Audio Home Page (from Norway, In English) Info on horn speakers, etc. No transistor gokks need apply.

Alan Kimmel's Tube Audio Labs

Don Adamson's Antique Radio Page

Gabe's Tubes & Stuff: Besides a lot of tube info, Gabe visited here, too, and wrote a little article about it.

Dick Pierce's HiEnd Audio anecdotes...good bench humor...

Need to find a speaker reconer? Try

Brand specific sites for tube hifi gear

Altec Lansing Corp (guess who owns them now?)

Curcio Audio ..Joe makes the Daniel preamp, and upgrade boards for Mk3 and ST70 Dynaco.

The Unofficial EICO page

ElectroVoice Corp

The Official Fisher Vintage Hifi Web of vintage Fisher gear.

Golden Tube Audio may be out of business, but fear not, there's a self-help group for Golden Tube addicts,

The Heathkit Virtual Museum

The Heathkit Vintage Hi-Fi Page, with email discussion server for Heath hifi mavens:

The official JBL Professional web page, which has online info for many old & discontinued JBL products.

The Official Heathkit Web Page, they can supply schematics for Heaths, and have a list of vendors of parts/service for Heathkits.

The Unofficial Knight-Kit Page, mostly concentrating on Knight SW/Ham gear.
There's also a Knight Bulletin Board at:

The Unofficial H J Leak tribute site,schematics & info on Leak Point One and other classic Leak gear from the UK. Also info on Lowther amplifiers.

The Unofficial Marantz site,info on tube & early transistor Marantz gear.

Marantz re-issues the famous model 7C preamp, 8B and 9 tube amplifier.

McIntosh Amplifier History

Milbert Car Tube Amps

Sheldon Stokes' Most Excellent Tube Adventure Schematics & info about Quad ESL' s

And if you like Quad gear, you might want to check out Quad World at

The Official Quad web site:

Some pictures of the fabulous E H Scott radios made here in Chicago:

Biography of radio pioneer E H Scott..his World's Record radio recievers (Chicago to New Zealand in 1924!) and more.

Hermon Hosmer Scott's World Wide Fan Club HQ (Even RCA apologists can get links on my page! Aren't I sweet!)

H H Scott tribute website Pictures, list of models, HH Scott bio, more

Gordon Rankin's Fabulous Really High End Triode Amplifiers

Lots of pix of vintage Western Electric gear, 

Sites relating to triode, single-ended triode (SET) and direct heated triode (DHT) amplifiers

Data on Direct-Heated Triodes (plus lots of others) from Hong Kong

The Direct Heated Triode WWW page http://

Online version of The FI Primer, by JC Morrison:

Jim de Kort Dutch direct heated triode maven

Chris' Tube Haven: Pictures & schematics for 845 SE amp.

Bob's Tube & Audio Page schematics for PP & SE triode amps..

Yet Another Nice Italian Web Page...Alessandro Galavotti's page, dedicated to DHT (Direct Heated Triode) amplifiers :
Same as above, but in Italian:

More Do It Yourself DHT Projects, this time from Denmark.

Claudio Bonavolta's site, from Switzerland. Schemattics for  DIY triode hifi amplifiers, preamps, and tube RIAA phono stages.

Tim Reese's site, Tim put the SET intensive archives of the Joenet Email List online...several megabytes of it. Plus the whole RC-10 RCA tube manual (ca. 1932)

Audio Bizarro, loads of pictures of mondo cool triode amplifiers, including a 700 lb (300 kg) pair of SE monoblocks using WE-212E's, and a treatise on building your own triode power amp:

Single-Ended Triode links page...amps, speakers, etc.

Tom Ronan, the president of the Lowther America Fan Club put together the Radio-Active page on SET amps & speakers that go with them.

Gordon Rankin's Fabulous Really High End Triode Amplifiers

The following sites are mostly in Japanese, but you can look at the pictures and read the diagrams, at least:
Emission Lab:

Tables comparing various similar tube types, in English & Japanese.

On Line and Off Line Magazines

Sound Practices Magazine Visit Joe Roberts' web site before the Illuminati wise up and have him kidnapped! A zillion links, too!

Direct from Ol' Blighty (aka England) it's Hi Fi World magazine and Hi-Fidelity magazine

The web home for Britain's Practical Wireless Vintage & Valve column..

AudioFile Magazine from Maylasia, in English. These guys actually have a sense of humor about audio, at any rate it's worth checking out.

Sound Stage Audio Online

Enjoy the Music

Vacuum Tube Valley Magazine

Audiophilia Online Magazine

Positive Feedback Online Magazine..see what Gizmo has to say about our Tesla/JJ 300B'

M Audio Video, audiophile E-zine for French speakers y para los fanaticos de alta fidelidad quien hablan el espanol:

Ultra High Fidelity, Canadian audiophile magazine, nice site which LOADS FAST compared to lot of other 'zine sites.

Tube CAD, an e-zine devoted to tube audio circuits, sponsored by GlassWare. A must read for homebrewers & designers.

The Engineering Musician Web Page and Online Magazine

Vintage Guitar Magazine with online Bulletin Board for users.

Harmony Central user reviews of musical equipment and more.

Pages on vintage organs & electronic music machines

The big web page. Lotsa pictures of monster organs. ;-)

The Hammond Leslie FAQ (213K)

Huge page of Hammond Organ and Leslie Speaker links!

Ortigara's Musicville: Hammond & Leslie Nostalgia Lots of pictures of where Leslies & Hammonds were made (one's a few blocks from our office), thanks to Harvey Olsen.

Ever think about building a theremin? Here's some schematics for building them, including a tube version:
And an ftp site with more theremin schematics:
And another site with the history of the theremin, and how the man who invented it got kidnapped in New York by KGB agents in 1939:

120 Years Of Electronic Music, history of electronic organs & music machines:

The Hammond Tonewheel Organ Web Ring;list

Guitar Amp Related Sites

Duncan Munro's Amp Page: lots of tube data, plus SPICE models & schematics..

The mother of all guitar amp pages: Ampage with Tech-Talk BBS, Chat, Bench Humor, links pages, schematics & more.

The AX84 project, a great place to start for folks who'd like to build their own tube guitar amp:

Harmony Central user reviews of musical equipment and more.

Weber Vintage Speaker Technology popular US made replacement speakers for guitar amplifiers, also sells Jensen reissue speakers.Also has a very popular bulletin board.

First stop for information on old Fender amplifiers: The Fender Field Guide

How to date Fender Amplifiers by serial number...there's other ways, but Greg Gagliano is compiling how to do it this way, too.

Lots of schematics and mod suggestions for newer model tube guitar amps on Steve Ahola's page:

Miles O'Neal's guitar amp page, which includes Mookie's Taste Tests on various tube types and brands.

More pix of old Fender guitars & amps:

Time Electronics: Check out the pictures of the monster Fender 400PS bass amp.

Steve Wilson, seen here undoing some of Dr Stereo's handiwork.

Col. Steve Wilson, amp guy for Stevie Ray Vaughan & the Kentucky Headhunters, talks about tube biasing.

I'm no guitar picker, but what could be cooler looking than a flip-top Ampeg B-15?? Visit the Unofficial Ampeg Home Page Now even more Ampeg schematics!

And Ampeg's official site is now up,

Greg Gagliano's Guitaium & Ampeteria lots of pix of Fender and Ampeg amps & guitars...the first picture is a doozy, be patient...

Schematics for the old Music Man amplifiers can be found here, courtesy of Ernie Ball

Learn all about Real Vibrato at the unofficial Magnatone page,

Huberts Tube Amp & schematics of rare european guitars & guitar amps.

Megabytes & megabytes of pictures & info about the justly famous English Vox amplifiers..hours of bugeyed fun for serious Vox phreaks!

Besides operating the Tube Amp Web Ring, Buddy hosts a site with Marshall, Fender, Vox and Ampeg schematics online.

People who like British guitar amps made the old fashioned way may wish to check out the official British (not US) HiWatt site. Yes, they'll ship you and amp direct from the UK if you ask nice...

They're working on a good page of all those hard to find schematics for their old amps..meanwhile, you can check out the official Gibson guitar page at

The Gibson Vintage Amp & info on Gibson amps 1936 to 1968, even lists production quantities made so you can tell how rare your Gibson amp is:

More info & schematics, links on Gibson amps:

If I'm gonna give space to Gibson & Ampeg, I guess I should mention the some of the other official sites, http://www.soldano.comand those nice handmade Victoria Amps, too..,and last but not least, them nice DR Z amplifiers,

I guess I should give the Canadians equal time too..especially since a fellow who stress-tested his amps by throwing them off the factory roof is my kinda guy. You can read more about Pete Traynor's  and Garnet Gilles' wonderful amplifiers at viva Analog at . This site has some interesting info on Fender & Marshall amplifiers as well.

H. Alexander Dumble doesn't have a web site, but any amp with the mystique associated with Dumble has gotta have an unofficial web page...note, kinda big (705K of jpegs!).. http://www.
This page has more Dumble photos, plus info on other vintage & boutique amps..

Larry's World, more pix & info on Dumbles, plus vintage Fender,Gibson, Marshall schematics, online guitar tuner. Huge page, be patient if you'tre hooked up at 28.8...

Of course, any legendary rock and roll amp like a Marshall has got to have an unofficial web site,too

The Unofficial Univox Guitar & Amp Page:

A big page on  Silvertone (mostly Danelectro) guitars and amplifiers.

Summit Amplifiers, Princeton, IL, USA. Links, tech pages & schematics.

Hoffman Amplifiers parts for older Fender amplifiers, or to build your own.

Aiken amplifiers, tech papers, DIY projects, patent papers, etc...

Wzmacniacze gitarowe: Kliknij tutaj,jesli mowisz po polsku: Lotsa schematics, which you can read even if you can't speak Polish.."lampy" is Polish for "tube"..

Pictures of how to build your own Blackface Deluxe Reverb clone.

Australia-New Zealand Amp Builders' Forum: begrudging added here despite the fact that even after much begging & whining they still haven't sent me any of that killer beer they keep telling me about.

Digital Music Zone interesting DIY schematics. , same guy runs the Analog Music Zone,

Tube CAD, an e-zine devoted to tube audio circuits, sponsored by GlassWare. A must read for homebrewers & designers.,

Musical Instrument Technicians Association: Lots of resources for service needs...

R G Keen's Tube Amp & Guitar FAQ,with Interactive Amp Troubleshooting Guide

Waldo Pepper's Guitar & Guitar Amp FAQ

Music Electronics MicroArchive: Includes Tube Amp FAQ, Guitar Amp FAQ, and Tube Amp Theory for Beginners

Ampzilla's Page:Links to lots of schematics sources, guitar amp, organs,hifi and sound reinforcement

Cybermonk may get a lot of flak on alt.guitar.amps for his incessant hammering on the issue of micropower tube amps...but his web page is interesting reading, anyway.

Not a technical page, but interesting anyway...everything  you ever wanted to know about the the song Louie Louie, why the FBI investigated it,and the over 1,000 covers that have been recorded of this 60's garage-band anthem:
Here's the list of all 823 versions of Louie Louie played during a monster marathon on KFJC radio in 1983:

Pages with Tube Oriented FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions) and Tube Beginner oriented sites:

Homebrew tube amp corner

How To Build Your Triode Power Amp.

Tube Beginners' Web Page

Music Electronics MicroArchive: Includes Tube Amp FAQ, Guitar Amp FAQ, and Tube Amp Theory for Beginners

The AX84 project, a great place to start for folks who'd like to build their own tube guitar amp:

The Hammond Leslie FAQ (213K)

The Blue Glow in Tubes , why they do it.

FAQ's for* groups

If you like old tube shortwave and amatuer radio gear, you'll love the Boatanchors FAQ at

R G Keen's Tube Amp & Guitar FAQ,with Interactive Amp Troubleshooting Guide

Waldo Pepper's Guitar & Guitar Amp FAQ

Las preguntas mas frecuentes de valvulas (en espanol)

Links to More Links!

Audio Society of Minnesota:Lots of links to other Audio Societies

Jenzaz HiFi Linkz (from Sweden, in English)

Philip's HiFi and Music Links (From Singapore, in English)

The Huge Audio Related Internet Site List by Steve Ekblad

Tube Related Links and archive of reviews, from austria (in English)

Single-Ended Triode links page...amps, speakers, etc.

Large Antique Tube Radio Links links page....

Pro Audio Links on the WWW

Huge Japanese Tube Links Page!

Huge page of Hammond Organ and Leslie Speaker links!

A huge list of Ham Radio Links (large, 384Kbytes!)

FTP sites

Many ftp sites have UNIX gz-zipped files, like .tar , .tar.Z , .gz and .tgz types. You can open these with PKZip, which you can download from Tools for viewing UNIX style image formats can be found at and

Note the above ftp has had slow connects & access problems occasionally. You might have to try again later.


An ftp site with theremin schematics:

Jukebox related sites

PR Novelty Milwaukee-based jukebox & theater-amp repair

John's Jukebox & Pinballxsistor & diode sub info for Wurlitzer & Seeburg

Jim Jukebox's Home Page: Info on old tube jukeboxes

The Official Wurlitzer Jukebox Web Site

My favorite jukebox: The Official Rowe-AMI Home Page,

Yes, Virginia, there really was a Mr. Rockola!

Manuals for just about every kind of jukebox.

The WWW Site for collectible jukeboxes,

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